AskDefine | Define chromate

Dictionary Definition

chromate n : any salt or ester of chromic acid

User Contributed Dictionary

English

Noun

  1. any salt of chromic acid; in solution the yellow chromate anion (CrO42-) is in equilibrium with the orange dichromate anion (Cr2O72-), the relative amount of each ion depending on the pH; they are both very powerful oxidizing agents

Extensive Definition

Chromates and dichromates are salts of chromic acid and dichromic acid, respectively. Chromate salts contain the chromate ion, CrO42−, and have an intense yellow color. Dichromate salts contain the dichromate ion, Cr2O72−, and have an intense orange color.

Characteristics

2 CrO42− + 2 H3O+ ⇌ Cr2O72− + 3 H2O
This equilibrium can be pushed towards dichromate by lowering the pH (making the solution more acidic) or in the other direction towards chromate by raising the pH to basic. This is a classic example of Le Chatelier's principle at work. This equilibrium is also dependant on concentration of Chromium in solution.
  • They are used in environmental analysis to measure chemical oxygen demand (COD).
  • They are carcinogenic. All hexavalent chromium compounds are considered toxic and carcinogenic.
  • When used as oxidizing agents or titrants in a redox chemical reaction, they will turn into trivalent chromium, Cr3+, which has a distinctively different blue-green color.
  • The sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), and ammonium (NH4+) salts are water soluble granular solids and are the most commonly used chromate or dichromate chemical reagents. Most chromate and dichromate salts of heavy metals, lanthanides or alkaline earth metals are only very slightly soluble in water and are thus of much less usefulness.
  • Chromate conversion coatings are applied to metals for corrosion protection, and to improve paint adhesion.
  • The use of chromate compounds in manufactured goods is restricted in the EU (and by market commonality the rest of the world) by EU Parliament directive 2002/95/EC

Structures

See also

chromate in German: Chromate
chromate in Hebrew: כרומט
chromate in Dutch: Chromateren
chromate in Portuguese: Cromato
chromate in Russian: Хроматы
chromate in Finnish: Kromaatti
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